Venus Planet
शुक्र ग्रह


Venus : The Fiery Jewel of Our Solar System

Venus, the second planet from the Sun and often called Earth’s “sister planet,” presents a 

stark contrast with its scorching surface and thick, toxic atmosphere. Journey with us as 

we delve into the mysteries of This Planet, exploring its extreme conditions and unique 

features that set it apart in our solar system.


* Discovery of Venus

The discovery of This Planet, like many celestial objects, dates back to ancient times. 

Here is a brief overview of how planet was discovered and how our understanding of it 

has evolved over the centuries.

Ancient Observations

1:- Prehistoric Observations: due to its brightness, was easily visible to the      

      naked eye in the night sky. Prehistoric cultures likely observed and noted its 


2:- Babylonian Astronomy: Babylonian astronomers, around the 17th century BCE, made 

some of the earliest recorded observations of this planet. They associated it with their 

goddess Ishtar.

3:- Greek and Roman Astronomy: The Greeks named the planet “Phosphorus” (meaning 

“light-bringer”) when it appeared in the morning sky and “Hesperus” (meaning “evening 

star”) when it appeared in the evening. The Romans later identified it with their goddess 

of love, Venus.

4:- Astronomical Theories: Ancient astronomers, including Greek philosophers such as 

Pythagoras and Aristotle, developed theories about the nature of Venus as it moved 

across the sky. However, they did not understand that it was a planet orbiting the Sun.


* Heliocentric Model and Venus

1:- Copernican Revolution: In the 16th century, Nicolaus Copernicus proposed the 

      heliocentric model of the solar system, placing the Sun at the center with planets, 

      including Earth and Venus, orbiting around it.

2:- Galileo’s Observations: In the early 17th century, Galileo Galilei made telescopic 

      observations of this Venus, confirming that it went through phases similar to the 

      Moon.This provided evidence for the heliocentric model.

3:- Telescopic Observations: As telescopes improved, astronomers such as Johannes 

      Kepler and Giovanni Cassini made detailed observations of this planet, further 

      confirming its phases and orbit.


The discovery of this planet orbiting the Sun was a gradual process that evolved 

over centuries. From ancient observations and associations with mythology to the 

heliocentric model of the solar system, our understanding of Venus has deepened 

with advancements in astronomy and space exploration.

Today, we continue to study Venus with spacecraft missions and telescopic 

observations, uncovering its mysteries and shedding light on its extreme environment 

and unique characteristics.



* Dimensions

The dimensions of Venus, the second planet from the Sun, can be described in 

terms of its size, diameter, and mass. Here are the key dimensions of This Planet:

1:- Equatorial Diameter: Approximately 12,104 kilometers (7,521 miles)

2:- Polar Diameter: Approximately 12,104 kilometers (7,521 miles)

3:- Mean Diameter: Approximately 12,104 kilometers (7,521 miles)

4:- Circumference: Approximately 38,025 kilometers (23,627 miles)

5:- Surface Area: Approximately 460.2 million Sq. kilometers (177.7 million Sq. miles)

6:- Volume: Approximately 928.4 billion Cubic kilometers (222.4 billion cubic miles)

7:- Mass: Approximately 4.87 x 10^24 kilograms (0.82 Earth masses)



* Key Facts of Venus

1:- Distance from the Sun: This Planet orbits the Sun at an average distance of about 67 

      million miles (108 million kilometers).

2:- Orbital Period: A year on Planet (the time it takes to orbit the Sun once) is equivalent 

      to about 225 Earth days.

3:- Rotation: This Planet rotates very slowly on its axis, taking about 243 Earth days to 

      complete one rotation. Interestingly, this planet rotates in the opposite direction to 

      most other planets, a phenomenon known as retrograde rotation.

4:- Surface Temperature: This Planet experiences extreme surface temperatures due to 

      its thick atmosphere and greenhouse effect. Daytime temperatures on this planet can 

      reach up to 900 degrees Fahrenheit (475 degrees Celsius), making it the hottest planet 

      in our solar system.

5:- Atmosphere: This planet has a dense and toxic atmosphere composed mainly of 

      carbon dioxide (about 96.5%) with traces of nitrogen and other gases. The 

      atmospheric pressure on this planet is about 92 times that of Earth’s, similar to the 

      pressure found 3,000 feet (900 meters) underwater on Earth.

6:- Cloud Cover: The planet is enveloped in thick clouds of sulfuric acid, which reflect 

      much of the sunlight that reaches this planet back into space. These clouds create a 

      greenhouse effect that traps heat, contributing to the extreme temperatures on the 

      planet’s surface.

7:- Surface Features: This Planet has a relatively young surface with extensive volcanic 

      plains, mountains, and large impact craters. The lack of plate tectonics means that 

      planet has fewer surface features like mountains and valleys compared to Earth.

8:- Magnetic Field: This Planet has a very weak magnetic field, about 0.000015 times 

      that of Earth’s magnetic field. It is often described as “induced” rather than intrinsic, 

      meaning it is likely generated by interactions between the solar wind and this planet’ 

      atmosphere rather than a dynamo effect from a liquid metal core like Earth’s.

9:- Lack of a Liquid Iron Core: Unlike Earth, This Planet likely does not have a liquid iron 

      core capable of generating a strong magnetic field. The lack of plate tectonics and a 

      significant magnetic field suggests that Planet interior is not convecting in the same 

      way as Earth’s.


* Composition of Venus



1:- Main Component: The atmosphere of this planet is predominantly composed of 

      carbon dioxide (about 96.5%), making it a thick and dense atmosphere.

2:- Traces of Gases: There are also traces of nitrogen, sulfur dioxide, water vapor, and 

      other gases in this planet’s atmosphere.

3:- Clouds: This Planet’s atmosphere is shrouded in thick clouds of sulfuric acid droplets, 

      which reflect sunlight back into space and contribute to its extreme greenhouse 




1:- Rocky Terrain: This Planet’s surface is rocky and heavily cratered, similar to the 

      Moon’s surface.

2:- Volcanic Features: It has vast volcanic plains, indicating significant volcanic activity 

      in the past. Some volcanoes on this planet are among the largest in the solar system.

3:- Mountains: This Planet has mountains and highlands, with Maxwell Montes being the 

      highest mountain on the planet.

4:- Impact Craters: Although Venus has impact craters, they are relatively few 

      compared to other bodies in the solar system. This is due to the planet’s thick 

      atmosphere, which burns up smaller meteoroids before they reach the surface.

5:- Lava Flows: Extensive lava flows cover much of this Planet’s surface, suggesting that 

      volcanic activity has played a significant role in shaping the planet’s geology.



* Structure of Venus


1:- Size: The core of This Planet is estimated to be about 3,000 to 3,500 kilometers (1,900 

      to 2,200 miles) in diameter.

2:- Composition: The core is believed to be primarily composed of iron and nickel, 

      similar to Earth’s core.

3:- State: The core of This Planet is likely solid due to the lack of a strong magnetic field 

      generated by a liquid metal core.


1:- Thickness: The mantle of This Planet is estimated to be around 3,000 kilometers 

      (1,900 miles) thick.

2:- Composition: It is composed of silicate rocks, similar to Earth’s mantle.

3:- Convective Activity: The mantle of This Planet is thought to have convective activity,  

      which may have contributed to past volcanic eruptions and the resurfacing of the 



1:- Thickness: The crust of This Planet is estimated to be around 50 to 70 kilometers (31 

      to 44 miles) thick.

2:- Composition: This Planet’s crust is composed of basaltic rock, similar to the oceanic 

      crust on Earth.

3:- Tectonic Activity: Unlike Earth, This Planet does not have plate tectonics. Instead, it 

      may have undergone periods of global resurfacing due to volcanic activity.



* What Would Happen if a Human Were to Enter Venus

Extreme Surface Conditions

1:- Extreme Heat: This Planet has an average surface temperature of about 462 degrees 

      Celsius (864 degrees Fahrenheit), which is hotter than the surface of Mercury, 

      despite being farther from the Sun. This extreme heat is due to the thick atmosphere 

      and greenhouse effect.

2:- Crushing Atmospheric Pressure: This Planet’s atmosphere is about 92 times denser 

      than Earth’s, creating a pressure equivalent to being about 900 meters (3,000 feet) 

      underwater on Earth. This pressure would crush a human instantly.

3:- Toxic Atmosphere: This Planet’s atmosphere is mainly composed of carbon dioxide 

      (96.5%) with traces of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen. It also contains clouds of sulfuric 

      acid droplets. Breathing the air would be impossible, and exposure to the corrosive 

      sulfuric acid would be deadly.

Immediate Effects on a Human

1:- Incineration: Due to the extreme temperatures, a human would be incinerated almost 

      instantly upon exposure to the surface.

2:- Crushing Pressure: The atmospheric pressure would crush a human, leading to the 

      immediate collapse of the lungs and the rupture of blood vessels.

3:- Suffocation: Even if a human were able to survive the extreme heat and pressure 

      momentarily, the lack of oxygen and the toxic atmosphere would lead to suffocation.

4:- Corrosive Environment: The sulfuric acid clouds would corrode any exposed skin and 

      materials, causing severe chemical burns.


if a human were somehow transported to the surface of this planet without the necessary 

protection, they would be incinerated, crushed, suffocated, and exposed to a highly 

corrosive environment within moments. The extreme conditions on this Planet make it 

one of the most inhospitable places for life in our solar system.


* Unique Characteristics

1:-Runaway Greenhouse Effect: This Planet extreme surface temperatures are largely due 

     to a runaway greenhouse effect. The thick atmosphere traps heat, leading to a surface 

     temperature hotter than that of Mercury, despite this planet being farther from the Sun.

2:- Retrograde Rotation: This Planets rotates in the opposite direction to most other 

      planets, with a slow and retrograde rotation. This unusual rotation is still not fully 

      understood by scientists.

3:- No Moons: Unlike most other planets in our solar system, This Planet does not have 

      any moons orbiting around it.

Possibility of Life

Due to its harsh conditions, This Planet is considered inhospitable to life as we know it. 

The surface temperatures are hot enough to melt lead, and the thick clouds of sulfuric 

acid create a hostile environment.


* Modern Discoveries and Exploration

1:- Telescopic Observations: As telescopes improved, astronomers such as Johannes 

      Kepler and Giovanni Cassini made detailed observations of this Planet, further 

      confirming its phases and orbit.


2:- Mariner 2 (1962): NASA’s Mariner 2 was the first spacecraft to fly by Venus Planet, 

      providing the first close-up data of the planet’s atmosphere.


3:- Venera Missions (1961-1984): The Soviet Union’s Venera series of spacecraft 

      conducted numerous missions to this planet, including landers that sent back the first 

      images and data from the planet’s surface.

4:- Magellan Mission (1990-1994): NASA’s Magellan spacecraft used radar to map the 

      surface of this planet, revealing its geology and topography in detail.


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