Jupiter Planet
गुरू (बृहस्पति) ग्रह


Jupiter : A Majestic World Of Mystery and Power

आपल्या सौरमालेतील सर्वात मोठा ग्रह, गुरू हा एक वायू राक्षस आहे जो त्याच्या प्रचंड आकारमानासाठी, 

आकर्षक स्वरूपासाठी आणि गतिमान वैशिष्ट्यांसाठी ओळखला जातो. रोमन देवतांच्या राजाचे नाव 

असलेल्या, ज्युपिटरने शतकानुशतके खगोलशास्त्रज्ञ आणि स्टारगेझर्सचे आकर्षण मिळवले आहे. त्याच्या 

आकर्षक असणाऱ्या ढगांपासून ते त्याच्या आयकॉनिक ग्रेट रेड स्पॉटपर्यंत, ज्युपिटर आपल्या रात्रीच्या 

आकाशात एक चित्तथरारक देखावा सादर करतो.

* Discovery Of Jupiter

Jupiter, the largest and most massive planet in our solar system, has a history of 

discovery that dates back thousands of years. Here, we delve into the fascinating 

journey of how this colossal gas giant was first observed and understood by ancient 

civilizations, leading to modern-day exploration and revelations.

Ancient Observations

The discovery of this planet can be traced back to ancient times when early astronomers 

observed bright points of light moving against the backdrop of fixed stars. These 

“wandering stars,” or planets as we know them today, were seen in the night sky, 

including the majestic this planet.

Mesopotamian Records

Around the 7th century BCE, Babylonian astronomers meticulously recorded the 

movements of celestial objects, including This Planet. They named it after their king of 

gods, Marduk, noting its regular patterns against the stars.

Greek Recognition

In ancient Greece, Jupiter was associated with Zeus, the ruler of Olympus. Greek 

astronomers such as Ptolemy further studied its movements, contributing to the 

understanding of its retrograde motion—an apparent reversal in its path as seen from 



Galileo’s Telescope

A significant milestone in Jupiter’s discovery occurred in 1610 when Galileo Galilei turned 

his newly crafted telescope to the night sky. Through his crude but revolutionary 

telescope, Galileo observed four bright points of light orbiting Jupiter. These were later 

identified as the Galilean moons – Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto. This discovery 

shattered the notion that everything in the cosmos orbited around Earth, forever changing 

our view of the universe.


The Great Red Spot

Jupiter’s most iconic feature, the Great Red Spot, was first observed in the 17th century. 

It is a massive storm, larger than Earth, swirling in the planet’s atmosphere. This 

colossal tempest has captured the imaginations of astronomers for centuries, becoming 

a symbol of Jupiter’s dynamic and ever-changing nature.

Modern Exploration

As technology advanced, so did our exploration of Jupiter. In the 20th century, 

spacecraft such as Pioneer and Voyager missions provided humanity with close-up 

views of the gas giant, revealing its intricate cloud patterns, intense magnetic fields, and 

diverse moons.

Juno’s Arrival – One of the most recent and significant missions to Jupiter is NASA’s Juno 

spacecraft, which arrived at the planet in 2016. Juno’s mission is to study Jupiter’s 

composition, gravity, magnetic fields, and polar regions, shedding light on its formation 

and evolution.


* Dimension of Jupiter


1:- Equatorial Diameter: Jupiter’s equatorial diameter measures approximately 142,984 

      kilometers (88,846 miles). This makes it more than 11 times wider than Earth.

2:- Polar Diameter: The polar diameter of this planet is slightly smaller than its 

      equatorial diameter, measuring around 133,709 kilometers (83,082 miles). This 

      variation is due to the planet’s rapid rotation, which causes a slight flattening at the 



1:- Equatorial Circumference: With its equatorial diameter, This Planet’s circumference 

      at the equator is about 439,264 kilometers (273,472 miles). This immense size 

      means it would take more than 11 Earths lined up next to each other to span This   

      Planet’s equator.

2:- Polar Circumference: The polar circumference of This Planet is slightly smaller, 

      measuring approximately 419,970 kilometers (261,854 miles).


Calculating the volume of a gas giant like Jupiter is a bit more complex due to 

its gaseous nature. However, it is estimated that planet’s volume is about                         

1.4313 x 10^15 cubic kilometers (3.4313 x 10^14 cubic miles). This means you could fit 

over 1,300 Earths inside This Planet!


Jupiter’s massive size also translates to an incredible mass. The planet has a 

mass of approximately 1.898 x 10^27 kilograms (4.185 x 10^27 pounds). To put this into 

perspective, This Planet’s mass is over 300 times that of Earth!

Surface Area

Calculating the surface area of a gas giant is challenging due to its lack of 

a defined solid surface. However, if we consider the “surface” where the atmosphere 

becomes dense enough for pressure to be similar to Earth’s sea level pressure, This 

Planet’s surface area is estimated to be about 6.14 x 10^10 square kilometers (2.37 x 

10^10 square miles).

Notable Features

1:- Great Red Spot: This iconic storm on Jupiter is so large that it could engulf multiple 

      Earths. Its dimensions are ever-changing, but at its largest, it has been estimated to 

      be about three times the diameter of Earth.

2:- Galilean Moons: This Planet is orbited by a fascinating array of moons, the largest of 

      which are the Galilean moons – Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto. Ganymede, the 

      largest moon in our solar system, is even larger than the planet Mercury.



* Key Fact of Jupiter

Distance from the Sun

1:- Average Distance: Approximately 778 million kilometers (483.8 million miles)

2:- Perihelion (Closest Approach to Sun): About 741 million kilometers                         

      (460.5 million miles)

3:- Aphelion (Farthest Distance from Sun): Around 816 million kilometers                   

      (507.1 million miles)

Orbital Period (Year)

This Planet takes about 11.86 Earth years to complete one orbit around the Sun.

1:- Day Length: This Planet’s rapid rotation means it has a short day compared to its 

      orbital period. A day on Jupiter (one full rotation on its axis) lasts about                      

      9.9 Earth hours.

2:- Size: Diameter: Approximately 139,822 kilometers (86,881 miles)

      This Planet is so large that it could fit more than 1,300 Earths inside it.

3:- Gravity: Surface Gravity: About 24.79 m/s² (equivalent to 2.53 times Earth’s gravity)

      This strong gravity is due to this planet’s massive size and mass.


This Planet is known for its distinctive bands of clouds and its Great Red Spot.

1:- Bands: Jupiter’s atmosphere has alternating light and dark bands caused by powerful 

      jet streams.

2:- Great Red Spot: A massive storm that has been observed for centuries, larger than 


Surface Features

This Planet, being a gas giant, doesn’t have a solid surface like terrestrial planets.

Any “surface” is a transition zone between the gas atmosphere and a possible liquid or 

ice interior.

Some features like the Great Red Spot are visible from Earth, but they are part of the 

atmosphere, not the solid ground.


1:- Composition: This Planet’s atmosphere is primarily hydrogen (about 75%) and helium 

      (about 24%), similar to the composition of the Sun. Other components include traces 

      of methane, ammonia, water vapor, and other compounds.

2:- Cloud Layers: The different cloud layers in this planet’s atmosphere are made of 

      ammonia crystals, sulfur, and mixtures of these chemicals.

3:- Storms: Besides the Great Red Spot, This Planet experiences intense storms and 

      cyclones, including lightning discharges that are the strongest in the solar system.



This Planet has a vast system of over 80 known moons. The four largest moons, known 

as the Galilean moons, are

1:- Io: Known for its volcanoes and colorful surface.

2:- Europa: Has a subsurface ocean beneath an icy crust, making it an intriguing target 

      for astrobiology.

3:- Ganymede: The largest moon in the solar system, larger than Mercury, and has its 

      own magnetic field.

4:- Callisto: Heavily cratered with a relatively ancient and unchanged surface.


* Composition Of Jupiter

The composition of Jupiter’s atmosphere is primarily hydrogen and helium, similar to the 

composition of the Sun. Here’s a more detailed breakdown

1:- Hydrogen (H2):      

      This Planet’s atmosphere is mainly composed of molecular hydrogen (H2), making 

      up about 75% of its composition by mass.

2:- Helium (He):

      The next most abundant element in This Planet’s atmosphere is helium, making up 

      about 24% of the composition.

Other Gases

3:- Methane (CH4): This Planet’s atmosphere also contains small amounts of methane, 

      which contributes to its reddish-brown coloration.

4:- Ammonia (NH3): Ammonia is another trace gas found in this planet’s atmosphere, 

      forming clouds of white and brown hues.

5:- Water Vapor (H2O): Water vapor is present in small amounts, contributing to the 

      planet’s weather systems and cloud formations.

6:- Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S): This gas is believed to be present in this planet’s upper 

      atmosphere, contributing to its coloration and chemistry.

7:- Other Trace Gases: There are also traces of other compounds such as phosphine 

      (PH3), ethane (C2H6), and others in this planet’s atmosphere.

The exact ratios and concentrations of these gases can vary with altitude in This 

Planet’s atmosphere. Deeper within the planet, under the high pressures and 

temperatures, it’s believed that hydrogen transitions into a metallic state, forming a 

liquid metallic hydrogen layer that surrounds a rocky core. This unique state of hydrogen 

is responsible for this planet’s incredibly strong magnetic field.


* Structure Of Jupiter


The core of This Planet is thought to be a relatively small and dense region, composed 

primarily of heavier elements.

It is estimated to have a mass of about 10-20 times that of Earth.

The core likely consists of rock, metals, and hydrogen compounds under extreme 

pressure and temperature.

The exact size and composition of This Planet’s core are not precisely known and are the 

subject of ongoing research and modeling.

Metallic Hydrogen Layer

Above the core, there is a layer of metallic hydrogen, which is hydrogen that has been 

compressed to the point where it behaves like a metal.

This layer is believed to be quite thick and extends outward from the core.

The immense pressure within This Planet, created by its gravity, causes the hydrogen to 

transition to this unusual state.

Liquid Hydrogen Layer

Surrounding the metallic hydrogen layer is a region of liquid hydrogen.

This layer is thought to be in a supercritical state, meaning it behaves like both a liquid 

and a gas due to the extreme pressure.

The liquid hydrogen layer makes up a significant portion of This Planet’s interior.

Molecular Hydrogen Layer

Above the liquid hydrogen layer, there is a layer of molecular hydrogen gas.

This layer gradually transitions into This Planet’s visible atmosphere.

The molecular hydrogen layer extends upward into the atmosphere, becoming less 

dense and transitioning into the upper layers of clouds.


* What Would Happen if a Human Were to Enter Jupiter

Descent through the Atmosphere

As a human descends into This Planet’s atmosphere, they would encounter immense 


Jupiter’s atmospheric pressure increases rapidly with depth, reaching pressures of 

over 100,000 times Earth’s atmospheric pressure at sea level.

This extreme pressure would crush the human body almost instantly. It would be similar 

to being crushed by the pressure of an ocean many kilometers deep.

1:- Heat: This Planet’s atmosphere is also incredibly hot, with temperatures increasing 

      the deeper you go. Near the top of the atmosphere, temperatures can reach around 

      -145 degrees Celsius (-234 degrees Fahrenheit).

      However, as you descend, the temperature rises due to the heat generated by Jupiter’s 

      interior. Eventually, the heat would become intense enough to vaporize and 

      then incinerate the human body.

2:- Chemical Composition: Jupiter’s atmosphere is primarily composed of hydrogen 

      and helium, with trace amounts of other gases like methane and ammonia.

      The lack of oxygen would mean that a human could not breathe in s 

      atmosphere. Without a suit supplying oxygen, the person would quickly suffocate.

3:- Wind and Turbulence: Jupiter has incredibly strong winds and turbulent weather 

      systems.Wind speeds can exceed 400 mph (650 km/h) in Jupiter’s atmosphere.

      These powerful winds would likely tear apart any human-sized object long before 

      reaching deeper layers.

4:- Physical Disintegration: Due to the extreme pressures and temperatures, a human 

      body would not survive intact. It would likely be crushed, incinerated, and torn apart 

      by the intense forces long before reaching any solid surface (if there even is one).

      No Solid Surface: This Planet is a gas giant without a solid surface like the terrestrial

      planets. Its “surface” is a transition zone where the atmosphere becomes denser and 

      turns into a liquid. There is no solid ground to stand on or land upon.


In summary, if a human were somehow able to enter This Planet’s atmosphere, they 

would be crushed, burned, suffocated, and torn apart by the extreme conditions long 

before reaching any solid “surface” that This Planet might have. It’s a lethal combination 

of intense pressure, heat, lack of breathable air, and violent weather that makes This 

Planet completely inhospitable to humans.

* Unique Characteristics


Great Red Spot

This Planet is known for its massive storm called the Great Red Spot.

 It is an enormous swirling storm that has been raging for at least 400 years.

 The Great Red Spot is so large that multiple Earths could fit inside it.

 It’s a high-pressure region with winds reaching speeds of about 400 mph (640 km/h).


Strongest Magnetic Field

This Planet boasts the strongest magnetic field of any planet in our solar system, 

except for the Sun.

This powerful magnetic field creates intense radiation belts around the planet.

The magnetic field is about 14 times stronger than Earth’s.

Rapid Rotation

This Planet is a fast spinner, completing a full rotation on its axis in about 10 hours.

This rapid rotation causes the planet to flatten slightly at the poles and bulge at the 

equator. It also results in strong jet streams and bands in its atmosphere.


Galilean Moons

This Planet has a large and diverse system of moons, but its four largest moons are 

known as the Galilean moons: Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto.

These moons were discovered by Galileo Galilei in 1610 and were the first objects found 

to be orbiting another planet.

Each of these moons has unique features:

Io: Known for its active volcanoes and colorful surface.

Europa: Has a subsurface ocean beneath an icy crust, making it a target for 

astrobiological studies.

Ganymede: The largest moon in the solar system, with its own magnetic field.

Callisto: Heavily cratered and considered one of the most heavily cratered objects in the 

solar system.

Ring System

While not as prominent as Saturn’s rings, This Planet does have a faint ring system.

These rings are composed of dust particles, and they were first discovered by the 

Voyager 1 spacecraft in 1979.

The main ring is called the “Main Ring,” and it is about 6,200 miles (10,000 kilometers) 


Variable Atmosphere

This Planet’s atmosphere is dynamic and ever-changing, with distinct bands and zones 

caused by powerful jet streams.

The alternating light and dark bands are due to differences in temperature and 


This Planet’s clouds are made of ammonia crystals, sulfur, and mixtures of other 


Huge Size

This Planet is the largest planet in our solar system, with a diameter of about 139,822 

kilometers (86,881 miles).

It is more than 11 times wider than Earth and could fit over 1,300 Earths inside it.

Despite its size, This Planet is not a solid planet; it’s a gas giant composed mostly of 

hydrogen and helium.

* Modern Discoveries and Exploration


Juno Mission (NASA)

Launched in 2011, the Juno spacecraft arrived at This Planet in 2016 and has been 

orbiting the planet since.

Juno’s mission is to study This Planet’s composition, gravity field, magnetic field, and 

polar magnetosphere.

Discoveries from Juno include: Detailed mapping of This Planet’s magnetic field, 

revealing a complex and asymmetrical structure.

Mapping of Jupiter’s gravitational field, which provided insights into its interior 

structure. Measurements of water abundance in This Planet’s atmosphere, suggesting 

that the planet formed farther from the Sun than previously thought.

Great Cold Spot

In 2017, astronomers discovered a massive “cold spot” in Jupiter’s atmosphere 

using the Very Large Telescope in Chile.

This cold spot is a large, persistent feature in Jupiter’s upper atmosphere, similar to 

the Great Red Spot but colder.

It is caused by a giant cyclone in Jupiter’s atmosphere and is about 24,000 

kilometers (15,000 miles) wide.

Galilean Moons

Ongoing studies of Jupiter’s four largest moons (Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto) 

continue to reveal new and exciting findings.

Europa: In 2022, NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope detected water vapor erupting from 

Europa’s surface, reinforcing the idea of a subsurface ocean.

Ganymede: Recent studies suggest that Ganymede’s magnetic field changes in response 

to Jupiter’s magnetic field, indicating a complex interaction between the moon and 

its parent planet.

Atmospheric Studies

Advancements in ground-based telescopes and space-based observatories have 

allowed for detailed studies of Jupiter’s atmosphere.

Observations have revealed the dynamics of Jupiter’s cloud bands, storms, and 

atmospheric phenomena.

Scientists have detected changes in cloud patterns and the appearance of new storms, 

providing a deeper understanding of Jupiter’s weather systems.

This Planet’s Auroras

Auroras at This Planet’s poles have been studied extensively, revealing similarities and 

differences with Earth’s auroras.

Observations by the Hubble Space Telescope and the Juno spacecraft have provided 

insights into the processes that generate Jupiter’s auroras.

Impact Events

Jupiter’s immense gravity makes it a “cosmic vacuum cleaner,” attracting comets 

and asteroids. Observations by amateur astronomers and space telescopes have 

recorded multiple impact events on Jupiter’s atmosphere.

In 2016, an amateur astronomer in Austria captured footage of a bright flash on This 

Planet, likely caused by an asteroid or comet impact.

Mapping and Imaging

Advances in imaging technology have allowed for detailed mapping and monitoring of 

Jupiter’s surface and atmosphere.

High-resolution images from spacecraft like Juno and the Hubble Space Telescope have 

provided stunning views of This Planet’s storms, clouds, and features.

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